Patristocrat Cipher

The 2000 year old battle between encipherers and decipherers of secret messages continued to be a battle of wits. As one cipher type became solvable, another was introduced to take its place. Such is the case of the Aristocrat Cipher that we have examined over the past few chapters. As the solving techniques we have been discussing weakened one cipher’s cryptic value, another cipher came upon the scene eliminating word divisions. It is termed the Patristocrat Cipher.

A Patristocrat cipher is nothing more than an Aristocrat cipher with the word divisions or spaces between words removed. You will find them in the Cm in groups of five letter ciphertext constructions. Most of the principles that we have been discussing for the Aristocrat cipher in past chapters also apply to the Patristocrat cipher. Keep these fundamentals handy for both sets of cipher types. A summary appears in Appendix II.

The neat thing about working with the Patristocrat cipher is the fact that a crib will usually be provided. The crib will always appear as a Caesar Cipher and be in parenthesis. A review of Chapter One will remind you how to convert a Caesar cipher to plaintext.

Our benevolent Cm Patristocrat editor always uses a Caesar shift of six with the Patristocrat constructions. Count forward in the alphabet six letters, and you will arrive at the plaintext equivalent of the ciphertext.

Let’s take a look at the additional information that is provided in a Cm MJ 2002, P-1. Patristocrat, “Hidden writing” is the title of the cipher. The K2 indicates the keyword alphabet type. (91/19) indicates that the cipher is 91 letters long and contains 19 different letters of the alphabet. The second line indicates the number of times that each ciphertext letter appears in the text. (See frequency count analysis in Chapter Six.) In the absence of this information accompanying the construction it would be worthwhile to develop such information ourselves.

MJ 2002 P-1. Hidden writing. K2 (91/19) (XYNYWNCHA)     ANGO-KA
12L 10I 8ES 6CJ 5NOQZ 4R 3KWY 2BGH 1PX

RILNE  ZCNYE  OQSJI   LJQZS  PGLRQ  EHLEK  EOILK


ICIQL  JCXOG   ILYEN   LLROL  JSEWW  BSZKL  ILJIS
                                 de  tecti

ZNJCO  BYSNQ  IHSCW  EISCZ R.
ng

We are now ready to make an entry into this Patristocrat cipher. Our knowledge about solving the Caesar Cipher allows us to convert the Caesar crib XYNYWNCHA to plaintext “detecting.” Our next step is the determination of the proper crib placement.

“Detecting” is a pattern word (Chapter Six) with a pattern of 1-2-3-2-4-3-5-6-7. This means the second and third letters will repeat. Now look for ciphertext letters in our P-1 cipher with the same pattern.

We find this pattern only at letter positions 64 through 72 in the cipher text. Inserting the crib here will allow the recovery of much more plaintext with the known letters. Plaintext letters “h”, “o” and “s” now become visible and the plaintext begins to unravel. Use of K2 alphabet recovery procedures assist in the final demise of the cipher.

Patristocrat Quiz

P-1 Define the purpose of the Patristocrat cipher’s second line.

P-2. What number of letter shifts was used in the crib of this P-1 cipher?

P-3. The word “adapted” has a pattern. True or false?

P-4. What is the first plaintext (pt) word of the P-1 cipher?

Let’s continue to explore how a Patristocrat crib may be used as an entry into the cipher’s solution. In our example above we were fortunate to have only one place in the cipher where the crib would fit and the entry was relatively simple. What do we do when there is more than one place in the cipher construction in which the crib can be placed?

We talked about how the K2 keyword alphabet can be used to aid the solving process. This same tool can be useful in finding the right crib placement in Patristocrat ciphers where multiple locations exist. Let’s look a Cm JF 2002, P-2 cipher below.

JF 2002 P-2. Just a coward. K2 (93/20) (YUMCYL)     G4EGG

SQOQO  KMOUU  JAPQZ  OEMLU  HXKZQ  LQRPU  EMSMO

EYMPL  KQOWU  YLFSX  UQBZU  YHXUO  EXUME  XUYVU

PPMHZ  BLFSX  RZWWU  YEXQO  ZQL.
Replacement                                                    
K2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Frequency 1 2     6 2   3   1 3 6 7   8 5 9 2 4   12 1 3 7 5 6

The Caesar cipher YUMCYL yields plaintext word “easier” with its six letter shift. We find that this pattern word (1-2-3-4-1-5) can fit into one of four places under ciphertext letters with the same pattern: MDEYMP, UQBZUY, UYHXUO and UMEXUY. Now what in the world is a cryptanalyst to do with such a revolting development?

K2 Keyword Alphabet Analysis

Our handy K2 Keyword Alphabet tool comes to the rescue. Let’s set the K2 alphabet up with the plaintext letters across the top and list the possible ciphertext placement letters beneath the crib plaintext letters “easier.”

       abcdefghijklmnopgrstuvwxyz
MOEYMP O   M   Y        PE
UQBZUY Q   U   Z        YB
UYHXUO Y   U   X        OH
UMEXUY M   U   X        YE

What does our cryptanalytic eye detect? We look for an alphabetical sequence in our ciphertext keyword alphabet and find it only in the UQBZUY placement. The three spaces between ciphertext letters Q and U allow for a nice alphabetical ciphertext letter fit of R, S and T . The three spaces between ciphertext letters U and Z allow the placement of ciphertext letters V, W and X. What happened to the letter Y? We see it sitting over to the right-hand side next to the letter B. This is an indication that the letter Y is the last letter of our keyword and the letter B the beginning of the ciphertext alphabet.

We see no such alphabetical sequencing possibilities in our other three crib placement location alternatives so we may now confidently place the crib under ciphertext letters UQBZUY. And just look at what all your good seed has sown. You have now identified 44 of the 93 ciphertext letters in the construction. Take the time to pencil in the recovered plaintext. This will allow you to make educated decisions on more plaintext and further your K2 alphabet recovery process. Chalk up another solution to your solution storekeeping.

When the given crib is not a pattern word, crib dragging can be a stimulating manual exercise. The given crib needs to be placed in each ciphertext letter position to observe those plaintext letters that are generated as a result of each position placement. Patience is surely a virtue and becomes its own reward in doctor’s offices as well as shopping malls.

Patristocrat Quiz

 P-5. True or False. Cribs with more than one possible placement location cannot be solved.

P-6. True or False. The position of letter Y in crib location UYHXUO makes this location unlikely.

P-7. Ciphertext RZWWUY equals what plaintext word with this K2 alphabet recovery?

P-8. Ciphertext E equals what plaintext letter in this cipher?

Let’s take a look at another tool we have at our disposal in the Patristocrat solving process. Pay close attention to the ciphertext frequency counts on the second line of the construction. High frequencies are often indicators of popular plaintext vowels and consonants (senorita).

This is particularly true when the constructor’s main interest is to disguise words with high frequency letters rather than to avoid their usage entirely. When letter frequencies are not given with the construction, make the process of determining the ciphertext letter frequencies one of your first efforts in attempting to discern potential vowels in the cipher.

As we continue to develop the skill of placing the pattern crib in the cipher we quite naturally begin to question the placement of the non-pattern crib. Let’s take a look at this process in a Patristocrat cipher from the JF 2002 Cm.

JF 2002 P-7. 100% fiction. K2 (97/20) (UVION)   L. TWIN

WGXGZ  ZZZYQ  PKDNL  DMQPR  KWGVK  ZJRUO  RKGUF

ORLNY  OFXGF  OWNZY  LZVNY  PRFWP  DNPQX  ZULFD

GUUUU  GDGFP  QGHPR  OQPKO  MIPRY   LF
 
Replacement                                                    
K2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Frequency       5   7 9 1 1 1 5 5 2 5 6 9 5 7     7 2 4 3 5 8

The Caesar crib UVION translates into plaintext “about.” Notice the fairly uniform distribution of the high frequency ciphertext letters above. This will make the placement of high frequency plaintext letters into the construction a very difficult task. A successful method of crib placement analysis is to match low frequency plaintext letters to like low frequency ciphertext letters. This cipher’s crib contains the letter “b” which occurs in the English language approximately 1 percent of the time. We will attempt to match it to H, I and J, ciphertext letters appearing 1 percent of the time in this cipher.

Hypothesis Test

Let’s see how ciphertext letter groups with H, I and J as the second letter (GHPRO, MIPRY and ZJRUO) withstand the test of:

  1. Letter pattern match
  2. No letter self-encrypted
  3. Letter frequency match
  4. K2 keyword alphabet sequence

Place the ciphertext letters, GHPRO, MIPRY and ZJRUO under the plaintext letters, “about” in the K2 alphabet:

   abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

1) GH            P    OR            (GHPRO)

2) MI            P    YR            (MIPRY)

3) ZJ            R    OU            (ZJRUO)

Test Results

Ciphertext ZJRUO can be ruled out because ciphertext “U” cannot stand for plaintext “u.”  (Self-encryption).

Ciphertext groups GHPRO and MIPRY meet the non-pattern letter match of the crib word, “about,” have no letters self-encrypted and have letter frequency percentages closely related to those in the English language.

This leaves us with the K2 keyword alphabet flow as the final choice determinant between the remaining cipher groups. GHPRO on line one reflects a desirable alphabet sequence on the left and right hand side of the alphabet line. MIPRY on line two gives no indication of a desirable alphabet sequence. Though it may be possible for an alphabet sequence to appear between plaintext alphabet letters “c” and “n” the lack of this probability rules this place out.

The ciphertext group of GHPRO accounts for 34 percent of the cipher. It is time to pencil in the known plaintext.

Patristocrat Quiz

True or false:

P- 9.  Patristocrat frequency counts are useless.

P-10. Non pattern cribs cannot be placed.

P-11. There are four tests in the placement of non-pattern cribs.

P-12. “Senorita” is an acronym for high frequency letter occurrences.

We will close our discussion of the Patristocrat cipher with a few brief notes. Remember that the constructor’s main interest on the first page of the Patristocrat column is to disguise letters with high frequency usage. The absence of word divisions in this cipher enables the constructor to accomplish this. Be sure to use the frequency counts that are provided with the construction to uncover the high frequency plaintext letters (senorita). If the frequency counts are not provided, make them your first order of business.

Page two of the ACA Cm Patristocrat column is another story. Here, the diabolical constructor is disguising plaintext that most often never aligns itself with general properties of the English language. Searching for repetitive ciphertext letters that may represent high frequency digraphs or trigraphs (er, re, the, ing) will be helpful here. Also, be aware of the value of titles for possible plaintext words and Google searches that may relate potential wording value.

Always use the keyword alphabet as a simultaneous solving tool (Chapter Nine) to the plaintext recovery process, posting known letters in red. This will allow the decipherment of many ciphertext letters alphabetically sequenced around the keyword. Two Patristocrats to solve from scratch follow.. Beware of the letter “Q” in P-13 and alliteration in P-14.

 P-13.  Q Power.  K2.   (97/18)    (KOCM)     LIONEL                                                 

BGMCC  TAERN  TBGMZ  DFBGZ  DFBGM  ZABGM CCKBG ZPUTD EBGTE

FBGZF  TBGZH  TCZDW  BGZJR  FZPBG  RCGNB  GZFBG  ZCUKB  GTEFZ

RDDMZ CT. 
 
Replacement                                                    
K2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Frequency 2 14 8 6 4 7 15 1   1 2   5 2   2   4   8 2   1     13
P-14.  Alliteration. K2  (98/19)  (UFQUSM)    LIONEL                  

QCCQC  CRFXB  QFRKO  WXDRZ  ODQBX  QCLQN  DQUCX  QVFDK  YQVFR 


KOQUC  XQBFQ  CDKQI  ROFKQ  VGFXQ  WQZXD  QOWQF  FXOFR  JXQEE 


CRVQF  RKO.
Replacement                                                    
K2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Frequency   8 1       2   6 4 7 3 9 1 1 2   1 20 1 3 9 6 2 11 1