Appendix I – ARISTOCRAT SOLVING TOOLS

FEW POCKET TIPS

Here is a comprehensive list of Aristocrat Cipher deciphering tools under the acronym of Few Pocket Tips. A creative minded can create a 3 x 5 pocket fitting card to keep handy for their solving expeditions.

F – Frequency counts

A good place to begin to look for the plaintext of frequently reoccurring letters.

E – Endings, popular word

Repetitious CIPHERTEXT word endings may well be these popular word endings – ing, ion, tion, ed, es, ess, ent

W – Word beginnings

Popular word beginnings include, an, at, be, de, dr, en, in, no, pre, pro, re, se, th, un. Keep these in mind as plaintext present itself.

P – Pattern words

These are words that have reoccurring letters. We refer to the pattern word of “there” with the reoccurring letter “e” as having a pattern of 1-2-3-4-3, which means that the third and fifth letters are the same. Pattern letters are helpful in uncovering ciphertext Some of the most popular are: “That, there, good, poor, see, little, people.” Pattern word lists can be found on the Internet and in many publications which define them by word length and letter sequence.

O – One letter words

One letter CIPHERTEXT words are plaintext letter “giveaways”. Most always it is an “a” or an “I.”

C – Cribs/tips

Placing cribs or tips in the correct location in the cipher will lead to the recovery of more plaintext. Lower case cribs are already plaintext and can be placed directly. Tips given in upper case letter Caesar format must have its letters shifted to arrive at the plaintext crib to be placed in the cipher. (See the JF or MA, 2000 Cm’s for a review of this process.)

K – Keyword alphabet

We have talked at some length about the value of the Keyword Alphabet as a deciphering tool and an aid to constructing a disguised message. Refer to the Keyword Alphabet example (JF11 Cm) to refresh your mind on its process.

E – Ending letters

Those letters most often used to end English words are, d, e, g, s, t, n, r, y – consider these letters as the plaintext begins to fill in.

T – Title

Do not overlook the cipher title as a good source for potential plaintext words in the ciphertext.

T – The

Keep on the lookout for repetitive three letter CIPHERTEXT (trigraphs) repeats which could signal the existence of the word “the” in the plaintext.

I – IQ

Sorry, but this is the only way I can slip the letter “Q” into our acronym. “Q” is usually followed by “u” and then by a vowel, “a, e, i, or o.”

P – Position of letters – Most popular

a,” first or next to last; “e,” second or next to last or last; “i,” third from end; “o,” second; “u,” first or next to the last; “y,” last.

S – Short words

Keep an eye out for these short words – in, it, is, of, no, on, and, the

POTPOURRI

A potpourri of cipher solving lore follows with Nom source references. These principles can be applied to most cipher types.

Crypts First Word or Two (ZANAC)

The following words are the first (or first and second) highest frequency opening plaintext of more than 1000 randomly selected ciphers from the ACA Cm Journal. The (18%), A (5%), I (5%), It is (2%), We (2%), To (2%), If you (2%), It’s (2%).

“That” Pattern (ZANAC)

Have you ever wasted time trying “that” for the 1231 / ABCA pattern word, only to find yourself led astray? Here are ten additional frequent words with the same pattern. “Area, dead, ease, edge, else, high, says, tact, tent, test.”

The Nudge as a Learning Tool (QUIPOGAM)

I get excited over the cipher nudge as a learning tool. I “cut my teeth” in learning to solve the Amsco cipher with nudges from FIZZY, Cryptarithm mathematical bases, other than ten, with nudges from RISHU and most recently learned a most valuable axiom in the solving of the Tri-digital cipher with a nudge from QUIPOGAM. He pointed out that although a Tri-digital ciphertext number can stand for up to three letters, a plaintext letter must always represent the same ciphertext number.

Some 122 / ABB Pattern Words (ZANAC)

These eight words should always be kept in mind when looking at those with a 122 / ABB pattern:

ALL BEE ERR FEE OFF SEE TOO WEE

THE LETTER ‘H’ (CRYPTODOOD)

The letter ‘H’, except when beginning a word, is usually preceded by one (or more) of a small group of letters, C, G, P, S, T and W. If you find that it is a ‘G’ then the letters following this ‘GH’ are usually ‘I’, ‘OU’, ‘AU’ or ‘EI’. (Examples are fight, might, bough, tough, laugh, naughty, eight and neighbor.)

Finding the letter ‘H’ in a cryptogram will happen very often. This is because one of the first words we try to find in a cryptogram is the word ‘THE’. When placed, other occurrences of these letters usually appear in the cipher. When found, the small group of letters above can be attempted to precede it.

SENORITA (SIR REBRAL)

We have continually referenced the SENORITA letters as an anagram to recall the most frequently used letters in the English language. It comes from the keyboard of a nine year old original member of the ACA Kiddee Krewe, Ryne Bogart (SIR REBRAL), in a MA 2001 Cm article titled, “Cryptology is fun.” Proud pop, ACA Krewe, PHILLIES, tells us that Ryne has continued to grow up, smart.

Apostrophe Words: Contractions in ascending word-length order. (ZANAC)

‘D ‘M ‘S ‘T ‘LL ‘RE ‘VE

2-Letters I’d, I’m
3-Letters He’d, It’s, I’ll, I’ve, It’d, He’s, We’d
4-Letters

She’d, One’s, Ain’t, We’ll, we’re, We’ve, You’d, How’s, Can’t, He’ll Who’s, Don’t, Why’s, Isn’t, She’s, Let’s

5-Letters They’d, That’s, Aren’t, She’ll, You’re, You’ve, What’s, Hasn’t, You’ll, When’s, Wasn’t
6-Letters There’s, Doesn’t, They’ll, They’re, They’ve, Where’s, Mustn’t, Weren’t
7-Letters Couldn’t, Wouldn’t
8-Letters Shouldn’t

Former ACA member, Helen Fouche Gaines’ (PICCOLA) study of ciphers, Cryptanalysis, remains a classical text in the study of cipher analysis. Her account of vowel behavior follows.

Vowel behavior.

  1. A, E, I, O, are high frequency, U is moderate.
  2. Letters contacting low frequency letters are usually vowels.
  3. Letters showing a wide variety of contact letters are usually vowels.
  4. In repeated digraphs, one letter is usually a vowel.
  5. In reversed digraphs, one letter is usually a vowel.
  6. Doubled consonants (c) usually flanked by vowels (v), and vice versa. (cvvc or vccv).
  7. It is unusual to find more than 5 consonants in succession.
  8. If the CT letter with the highest frequency is assumed to be E. Any other high frequency letter that contacts it often cannot be a vowel.
  9. E is the most frequent vowel and rarely contacts O. Both double freely.
  10. “A” may follow but rarely precedes E.
  11. The vowel that reverses with E is I.
  12. Observations 10 and 11 apply to the vowel O, but U precedes E and follows O.
  13. The only vowel-vowel digraphs of consequence are OU, EA and IO.
  14. Three vowels in sequence may be IOU, EOU, UOU and EAU.

Codes, Ciphers & Secret Writing, Gardner

  1. The most common word letter end is E.
  2. The most common word letter beginning is T.
  3. The most frequent two letter words, OF, TO, IN.
  4. The most common three letter words, THE, AND.
  5. Q is most always followed by U.
  6. The consonant most often following a vowel is N.
  7. The most common double letters in regular order are LL, EE, SS, OO, FF, RR, NN, PP & CC.
  8. The most frequently used four letter word is THAT.

The Science of Secret Writing, Dwight Smith

Order Frequency of Initial Letters: T, O, A, W, B, C, D, S, F, M, R, H, I, Y, E, G, L, N, P, U, J, K.

Order Frequency of Final Letters: E, S, T, D, N, R, Y, F, L, O, G, H, A, K, M, P, U, W

Quote Authors’ Names (ZANAC)

http://www.quoteland.com/author.asp

Authors’ names are most useful with proper nouns at the beginning or end of Aristocrats, Xenocrypts and many Cipher Exchange constructions indicate an author’s name. The above list is not a pattern list but often, names will be found to contain a pattern and can indicate exact names like “Ann, George, William, Richard” and many others. Proper nouns form a frequency table and pattern list of their own. Keep such a list with your own patterns.

Constructor Patterns

Also helpful is a constructor index list with their use of frequent cipher topics, title relevancy, vowel (use or disuse), grammatical style (use of past or present participle verbs ending in “ed” or “ing”), foreign language proficiency for Xenocrypt X-7 identification.

WSJ.Com Making Every Word Count ( FLEUR DE LIS)

Check this site for word frequencies and a list of the one hundred most used English words.

Solving Resources

Check the Resources section under our ACA Website at www.cryptogram.org for helpful tips on all cipher types and nudges on current Cm ciphers.

Appendix II – PATRISTOCRAT SOLVING TECHNIQUES

  1. Do not ignore the cipher title. It can lead you to educated word guesstimates.
  2. Pattern crib – Align crib plaintext (pt) letter pattern with ciphertext (CT) letter pattern.
  3. Non-pattern crib – Drag plaintext crib through the CT, looking for additional logical plaintext.
  4. Letter frequency count – Locate high and low crib letter frequencies to CT high and low letter frequencies.
  5. Pattern words – Look for potential pattern words at the beginning and ending of the ciphertext. Verify them by dragging potential pattern word letters through the plaintext.
  6. Non-pattern words – Look for large non-pattern words from large word usage constructors (PETROUSHKA) at the start and finish of the ciphertext and drag their letters through the plaintext.
  7. Alliteration – Look for wordbreaks in cipher alliteration constructions by being alert to reoccurring letters spaced at average word lengths through the cipher (4.3 letters for normal writing).
  8. Look for high frequency CT digraphs (2letters) and trigraphs (three letters) that may represent high frequency pt digraphs “th, er, re, on, no, an, he, in, ed, nd, ha” and pt trigraphs “the, and, tha, ent, ion.”
  9. Google those cipher titles that may suggest quotations from famous statesmen, comics, personalities, etc. Plaintext may be revealed.
  10. Keyword construction recovery. Do not overlook the opportunity to use the keyword alphabet as an aid to recover additional plaintext. The K2 alphabet below suggests possible additional plaintext recovery.
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
T XYZC PH RABDFGJ MN
  1. “Keyblock discipline” is a term used by ZANAC to keep an eye on low frequency letter placements in K1 and K2 keyword alphabets. Letters occurring once or twice in the cipher construction are candidates for “b, c, j, k” at the beginning of the keyword alphabet sequence following the keyword and “v, w, x, y, z” possible candidates for the end of the alphabet sequence before the keyword. High letter (vowels) frequencies can aid in pinpointing the keyword placement.
  2. Look for triplets (that’s three identical letters in a row. (Ex. miSS Some). They are easy to spot; after the second letter you can undoubtedly place a word divisor. They narrow the number of possible substitutions to 2(or at most 5). They can confirm or infirm other guesses (by elimination). The most frequent triplets are S and L. You can also find O, E and F. (TWEETY)

Helpful Cm Articles for Patristocrat Solving

JA 91 – The Rookie’s Guide to solving Pats, LAMONT CRANSTON

JA 91 – The Science of Cryptanalysis, FAUSTUS

SO 91 – The Solution of Straight-Substitution Crypts, FAUSTUS

ND 91 – Ciphers – Vowel Spotting and Digraphs, PICCOLA

JF 92 – A Method For Finding Repeated Sequences, PICCOLA

MA 92 – Consonant-Line and Vowel-Line Methods, S-TUCK and BAROKO

Appendix III – BACONIAN CONCEALMENT CIPHERS

The two texts below appear very real and clear but consider their concealment of an underlying secret message when two distinct features are used to generate a concealment device. In these exercises, the Baconian equivalency letter is determined through the examination of the final letter of each word. Consider its verb or consonant status and assign the “a” and “b” equivalency on this basis. Continue this route until you arrive at five letter equivalencies that establish plaintext letters logical cleartext.

A.

The “father” of the Baconian biliteral alphabet type message code as we know it, was one, Lord Francis Bacon, a noted scribe, philosopher, one time avid cryptologist, who strongly believed the only secret codes were those that effectively concealed the fact that any secret existed.

Sixteenth Century, elite, active English political statesman, he used slightly different font types in the printing of written correspondence to conceal communication he wrote to his peers for exclusive interpretation by a selected few.

This system’s fundamental principle to compose an alphabet thru combinations that two unique symbols provide; in use long ahead of Bacon’s time by the ancient Greeks, whose armies use of fire torches swung to the opposite directions signified signs into two varying “fonts”. The Indians smoke signal communications from mountain tops across the North American Plains also is an example of communication transmission thru symbolic variations.

Simple substitution is the cryptographic art applied. A pure novice without any knowledge of cryptography is able to read the coded message quite easily when keys are provided the receiver.

Readable text use to conceal the fact that there was a concealment process present was a tandem step code device, with one step a text so obvious, no one would be ever looking for the second step.

So, Bacon’s noteworthy successes with cryptography lie in these very principles. It is claimed that he actually used the cipher as a preservation technique for historical documents, a media of lineage trace and a vessel for literary pseudo usage identification. Countless are many historians, literary personage, researchers and academics, who, pondering a Shakespeare connection, promote the question, who really penned some of the many works of Shakespeare? But such a pretense promises a story some brave soul can address another day where mind and matter compete with logic and reason.

Possibly, Bacon had his tongue in the proverbial cheek while declaring the true cipher was one not laborious to write, type or read. A strenuous mental exercise is necessary to construct Baconian text, a difficult task, attempting to write this bilateral type cipher in meaningful dialogue to promote plaintext concealment while being grammatically correct. ACA Krewe members who readily struggle thru Baconian constructions remain well aware of such.

Two versions of the Baconian cipher exist. One type, like null ciphers, conceals any plaintext existence, reading much like plaintext in its own. The second Baconian type, a verbal collage, conceals the message with series of words,

The Baconian type cipher concealment may use a variety of alternative methods for ciphertext dialogue. The use of any two distinct characteristic variations, either thru font styles, wordage length, message punctuation style, vowels, syllable number, consonant order, are all variables put to use in order to construct various ciphertext message cover of plaintext repartee.

We expend all such ruminations in the endless quest of the truly perfect cipher, the one which advocate, Francis Bacon, chose as a bastion of trust and security. He logically concluded that the most ingenious type cipher path devised by cryptographers, lie subject to cryptanalysis solution, as all paths can be followed backward to their very ultimate inception.

The Baconian Cipher is a good cipher to truly cover up the existence of any cryptography activity. Its value to the cryptographer is that no truly discernible trace of evidence exists to hint some sinister motive is taking place.

Though many a change has made the present day megabytes communiqué much the opposite of the ancient Greece torch fire communication technique and Indian mountain side clouds of smoke, divergent symbol signals still remain quite alive and with us today.

B.

The Baconian consists of two unique levels. We begin a simple substitute alphabet procedure to replace the message we are concealing with the use of five surrogate “b” & “a” type letters. The alternative use of font choice preference or symbols include a variable style that we can use in disguising the “b” & “a” substitute type. Concealments also are accomplished thru using a substitute message which appearance gives off the apparent resemblance of the real message. Dragging a nudge, or crib, is a technique that we use to find the place the crib fits the ciphertext type in identical like sequence. We do this thru comparing the Baconian equivalents that embodies to those the same like representative type ciphertext surrogate letters utilize. Where no variance be there evident, diverse use active thru use of conflicting type equivalents, no dispute due in appropriate place of locale.

Appendix IV – RAILFENCE TEMPLATE

It would be foolhardy to label either pencil and paper or computer solving techniques as the “proper approach” for solving any cipher. They are inter-related and have a bond between them. Pencil and paper solving is the learning foundation for cryptography, and cryptographic computer programming and computer programs have much to offer pencil and paper enthusiasts in alternative routes of solving routines and the elimination of much of the grunt work and drudgery of trial and error erasures.

The Rail Fence Cipher was a popular American Civil War cipher. For some people, the construction process is the very best route of learning the idiosyncrasies of cipher types as an aid to the decipherment process. This template was developed to allow one to reverse the process of zig zag plaintext generating ciphertext rows. The template will be an aid to all wishing to encipher plaintext messages and also deciphering Rail Fence ciphers. It should be noted that this same template can be used to encipher and solve those dreaded Redefence ciphers as well.

The template can be enlarged on a copy machine to any workable size for the user. There are patterns for Rail Fences ranging from 3 to 7 rows (rails) and space for over 60 letters. If more letters are required, tape two templates together at an appropriate place. Be sure to make copies of your enlarged copy which can be used for future Rail Fence ciphers.

Simply post the ciphertext letters to the horizontal spaces for desired number of rails and look for readable plaintext in the zig zag pattern spaces. Use only the number of spaces, counting from left to right in a zig zag path, which equals the number of letters in the cipher construction. Offsets are observed by leaving blank the number of spaces on the left hand side of the template to equal the number of offsets required. As spaces are skipped on the left hand side of the template they should be added to the right until the spaces used equal the number of ciphertext letters in the construction.

Rails Ciphertext Letters

3 —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —
    —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   —   — 
      —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —

4 —           —           —           —           —           —           —
    —       —   —       —   —       —   —       —   —       —   —       —   —
      —   —       —   —       —   —       —   —       —   —       —   —       —
        —           —           —           —           —           —           —

5 —               —               —               —               —               —
    —           —   —           —   —           —   —           —   —           —
      —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —       —
        —   —           —   —           —   —           —   —           —   —
          —               —               —               —               — 

6 —                   —                   —                   —                   —
    —               —   —               —   —               —   —               —
      —           —       —           —       —           —       —           —
        —       —           —       —           —       —           —       —
          —   —               —   —               —   —               —   —
            —                   —                   —                   —

7 —                       —                       —                       —
    —                   —   —                   —   —                   —   —
      —               —       —               —       —               —       —
        —           —           —           —           —           —           —
          —       —               —       —               —       —               —
            —   —                   —   —                   —   —                   —
              —                       —                       —

Special Note: Construction of the Railfence cipher will demonstrate that offset blank spaces at the start of the cipher are added to its end.

Use only the number of spaces that equal the ciphertext letters in the construction. Count off 52 spaces for a 52 letter construction, zig zag path, from left to right on the template.

Appendix V – Null Variables

AAHJU

Larry Mayhew

Distinguish principles for determining the position of a plaintext letter within a ciphertext word. First through infinite number of all words or nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs.

  1. Part of speech – noun, verb, adjective, adverb. Counting pattern from the beginning or ending of each word.
  2. Letter following a part of speech – consonant, noun, verb, syllable, adjective, adverb.
  3. Some counting pattern from the beginning or ending of each word.
  4. Middle letters of ciphertext words.
  5. Word syllables.
  6. Letters within selected word syllables.
  7. Counting patterns relative to vowels or consonants within a ciphertext word.
  8. Counting patterns relative to all ciphertext – Example every fifth letter or word.
  9. Punctuation mark patterns – letter or word following.
  10. Letter shape distinctions – Enclosed space or not, symmetrical or not.
  11. Letter placement based on initial letter of each word – A = first letter, B = 2nd letter
  12. Digraph/Trigraph counting within a ciphertext word or through multiple words.
  13. Do not exclude the possibility of two or more plaintext letters per ciphertext word.
  14. Be aware of the possibility of plaintext being reversed in ciphertext.

Nulls Ciphers from the Cryptogram, Grouped by Rule

BION Presentation to ACA 2006 Seattle Convention

start

One letter per word, numeric pattern (52 ciphers)

AM48 E-10  JF93 E-2  JA60 E-2  MJ94 E-5  SO60 E-2 ND94 E-3 SO60 E-8 JF98 E-7 JD66 E-4 MJ98 E-6 ND68 E-1 SO98 E-3 MJ70 E-1 ND98 E-4 SO71 E-2 JF99 CC-06 ND74 E-3 MJ99 E-7 SO75 E-5 JA00 E-9 JF78 E-2 MA00 E-1 SO78 E-5 ND00 E-2 ND79 E-3 MA01 E-2 ND80 E-3 JA01 E-3 MJ06 AC-816 ND01 E-2 ND81 E-10 MA02 E-5 MA83 E-8 ND02 E-6 MA84 E-11 JF03 CC-8 SO84 E-8 SO03 E-7 MA85 E-6 JF04 X-12 MA86 E-3 JA04 E-2 SO86 E-5 JA04 X-9 MA88 E-6 JA05 JA1 JF89 E-5 JA05 X-SP1 ND89 E-1 SO05 X-12 MA92 E-3 MJ06 X-10

One letter per word, key letter (5 ciphers)

MJ76 E-2  JA95 E-2  JF01 CC-8  JA03 E-12  JF06 E-11

One letter per word, unique shape or feature (2 ciphers)

JA02 E-18  ND04 AC-763

One letter per word, according to formula (3 ciphers)

MA87 E-8  JF97 E-5  MA03 E-11

One letter per word, numeric pattern, restarted at random (1 cipher)

MA89 E-4

Two letters per word, numeric pattern (12 ciphers)

AM48 E-13  JA64 E-10  ND69 E-3  MA73 E-4  MJ79 E-5  JA06 AC-821  JA88 E-9  JA90 E-3  MA91 E-2  MJ93 E-3  JA94 E-1  MJ05 E-6

One or two letters per word, numeric pattern (4 ciphers)

SO75 E-11  MJ82 E-2  SO87 E-2  MJ06 E-7

One or two letters per word, according to formula (2 ciphers)

MA90 E-6  ND03 AC-725

Group of letters, key group (1 cipher)

JA68 E-3

Ignore word divisions, numeric pattern (14 ciphers)

FM49 E-15  ND76 E-9  MJ80 E-4  SO85 E-4  MA90 CON4  ND90 E-9  JA91 E-4  JA92 E-2  ND92 E-2  JF94 E-4  MA95 E-6  ND95 E-3  ND99 E-5  SO05 E-18

Ignore word divisions, key letter (2 ciphers)

MJ72 E-12  SO93 E-3

Count blanks as letters, numeric pattern (1 cipher)

SO83 E-16

One letter per word, numeric pattern, reversed text (2 ciphers)

JJ52 E-7  MJ96 E-14

Two letters per word, numeric pattern, reversed text (1 cipher)

SO05 AC-791

Divide by syllables, numeric pattern (1cipher)

SO96 E-7

Morse code ( 1 cipher)

SO90 AC-363

Two messages, one letter per word, both numeric (1 cipher)

SO97 E-7

Two messages, one letter per word, numeric & key letter (2 ciphers)

MJ97 E-7  JF04 E-11

Null Rule Examples

One letter per word, numeric pattern – ND81 E-10

Lack tremendous motion? Ask Miss Grace Henderson. Managing leads abuse whenever stomach hurts. Henderson's doctors chase out small or tremendous plain! Attend!

(Alternate second letter from end and second letter from start)

One letter per word, key letter – JA95 E-2

FAITH POWERFUL OVERGROWN SEPTAGENARIAN SCREAM MNEMONIC FREEDOMS
LAMENTATION VIRTUOSO MOURN FOREIGNERS AREA SWORD THIRST
UNDERGROUND TWITCH APPLAUD HARDWARE NIGHTS HYPOTENUSE LAWYER
AGROUND FUEL

(letter before last vowel)

One letter per word, unique shape or feature – JA02 E-18

RUFUS NYLON FAIRY SPOTS HAUNT POUND ERROR FROGS DAUBS VUGGS TOKEN
THERE MELTS POUTS SHODS OBOES BAIZE THREE BROAD UVROU BUSES.

(Unique straight or curved letter)

One letter per word, according to formula – MA87 E-8

LUCKY ZOO: CAMEL, PUMAS, LIONS, GNU, PUFFINS, SEALS. WATCHED OTTER, CROCODILE, OSTRICH. VISIT AMUSING MARMOSETS, HOWLERS. LOVED PIGEONS, SPOONBILL. FOUND WALKS, DWELLINGS, GRASSES.

(Middle letter, = first plus last divided by 2)

One letter per word, numeric pattern, restarted at random – MA89 E-4

DWARFISH PROFESSOR TRIES TO SOLVE CIPHERS. EARLY ADVANCES ARISE, BUT ARE RESTRICTED TO UNPROVEN CLEVER GUESSES. CRITICISM GROWS, STATEMENTS OF WHIZ ARE ANNOYING. SHREWDLY HE MENTIONS NEW CONDITIONS. CIPHERBREAKING FOLLOWS GENEROUS TIPS ONLY!

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 restart at random)

Two letters per word, numeric pattern – ND69 E-3

BRIGHTLY GLIMPSED SCHOLARS STRANDED OCTAGONS SECTIONS
CONTESTS BATTERED NAUTICAL ACTIVATE HANDPUMP BALECLIP
GOLDRING BAKEBEAN LATESHOW ADIPOSED

(letters 3 and 6)

One or two letters per word, numeric pattern – MJ82 E-2

Bully boys sing sexy doggerel, Crazy enjoyment! Imitative dame
Edits their attempts, Waxes lyrical.

(first pair, then second to last letter)

One or two letters per word, according to formula – MA90 E-6

PYLON OVERSIZE AGO HALO TORPID DRACO SEQUIN NEMESIS STEW TRAITOR
DEPTH DOGMA SPAN PLOYS PARASOL ANALYSIS

(Last pair from odd length words, last letter from even)

Group of letters, key group – JA68 E-3

MJU RG S SAN GL HIP SUG WIL NFUF A LZG LARR NUG IV GAK ETUE
JDO ING SDA G YOFF MWA MTG BEL ENG LBU GA OY

Ignore word divisions, numeric pattern – JA92 E-2

FOR THE ORDERS AND BOYS MAKE CODES OF SIX TYPES. ALWAYS OBTUSE,
LANGUAGE REPEATS A WORD TO DEFEND NATURALS.

(2,3,4,5 Pattern)

Ignore word divisions, key letter – SO93 E-3

KILN OATH SWORN LEARNS DODGE IOTA SEAL AFIELD SIP OINKS WEALTH
CHRISM

(letters before vowels)

Count blanks as letters, numeric pattern – SO83 E-16

MUCH FAVORS NOW REMAIN A MOMENTARY GLIMPSE SEES NO ORDERS FOR MY
REPORT COULD NOT SENSE METHOD.

(4, 5, 6 Pattern)

One letter per word, numeric pattern, reversed text – JJ52 E-7

You should always be energetic, brave, tireless in opposing wretched evil men of Soviet internationales's high tyranny

(First, last, first, first in reverse)

Two letters per word, numeric pattern, reversed text – SO05 AC-791

SWISS UNTESTED SCORES DANDER EVENING ERUPTS PLEASES HISTORIES
INTENSE SUTURES ABACUS EDIBLE EXPLOITS ITEMIZES SWIRLS ELEVATION
OUTSWIMS THRIFTS EVASION UNFASTEN CARELESS BICYCLE REDCOAT
TONNAGE OUTDRAW

(1 and 4 from each word, reverse)

Divide by syllables, numeric pattern – SO96 E-7

IMPETUOUS MARINATE PARISHIONER ZYMURGY TORTUOUS GALIOT DROUGHT
SYNECDOCHE VACUOLE VERTIGINOUS PANEGYRIC NARCOSIS WROUGHT
UXORIOUS LOGARITHMS PTERODACTYL MAYHEM PUSILLANIMOUS MINISTERIAL
EQUINOX INTERPLANETARY XENOPHOBIA SPHINX EUPHONIOUS OXYACETYLENE.

(First letter of last syllable)

Morse code – SO90 AC-363

COUNTERESPIONAGE TATOO ILLICIT PARADIGM UNSCIENTIFIC PHOSPORESCENCE
PROCRASTINATION AUDIOPHILE PENITENTIARY INSIGNIFICANCE PERISCOPE ECLIPTIC
DIVISION QUADRANGLE UTTERANCE HIRSUTE TITTER HORNBLENDE OBLITERATION
SANITARIUM SETTLEMENT FORMIDABILITY KOHLRABI PHALANX OMNISCIENT
BIBLOMANIA AISLES SUNLIGHT UTILIZING DIETICIAN HARPSICHORD WAREHOUSEMAN
TRICHINOSIS BISCUTS EFFERVESCENT PARALYZED RATTLETRAP MYSTIC SUPERSTITION
MALICE

(T = dash, I = dot. Word with no T or I = space.)

Two messages, one letter per word, both numeric – SO97 E-7

LABRINTHINE INCLEMENCY KAOLIN ESTROGEN ANGIOSPERM RUTHERFORDIUM
OUTDOORSMAN LUMINOSITY LONGITUDINAL INUNDATE NASTURTIUM GRAPHICS
SPRINGELIKE TRIBALISM OBITURARY NIHILIST EERIENESS XEROGRAPHY
YEASTY ZONINGS WORKROOM OSSIFY RHYOLITE DUODECIMALIZE STAPHYLOCOCCUS

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2 pattern and first letter)

(Group following group with G)

Two messages, one letter per word, numeric & key letter – MJ97 E-7

SATYR TEACHER ALIENATION NEST INKED SYMBOL LEAN AMPLIFY WORKOUT
LORE ETHEREAL KEYING ADVENTUROUS DUO VOTER INCHES SERIAL EXAMINE
DARKEST

(first letter, and letter before last vowel, counting Y as vowel)

Keyed null – Worst country song titles 1

LIAISON BECKON BEEN ABNEGATE AIRDROPS MANIFOLD MELON MERGE SNAGS PEOPLE
SOFTNESS OUTGO MOTORIST PANOPLY ABDOMINAL AFGHAN MOSCOW ACROBAT
AGNOSTIC ALTOGETHER INDENTS KAOLIN DRABNESS OGLE OMINOUS ONTO
POLYNOMIAL PROGENY TENUOUS

(Repeated key word: song. Plaintext is letter before the first key letter in each word)

Keyed null – Worst country song titles 2

EPISCOPAL KEYSTONE CONSTRUCT RECREATION FRAGILITY YODELER HOMEY IDIOCY
ILLUSION SHUCK DRYING FALLOUT ACQUIRE SHABBY HATCHED ABBOT PLAYFUL
PLUMBING FRUITFUL UNILATERAL UNSEEMLY LYNCH ACOLYTE MINIBUS MINIBUS
OFFSET TEENAGER CUTELY DEMOCRATIC DURATION PEDICURE NONSKID EYESIGHT
GABARDINE LARCENY ROMANTIC STRIATION WIREPULLER WIRING

(Key: country. Second letter before key letter in each word)

Nulls — Easy as 1, 2, 3?

Mini Con — Lake George, NY

May 5, 2012

BECASSE

Binary Number Key, MJ12 E-11 Null. An apple is…(tooth) DABASAP

PHIL SAID “BIKE EAST LINDA.SETUP MURAL.TEAM APOLLO ITCHY. SUBARU WASHED.”
0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100

For each word, align its binary number (first word gets 0001, second gets 0010, etc.) with the right hand edge of the word, and the significant letters are above the “1” digits.

In binary, numbers from 1-15 are represented like this:

1- 0001  4-0100  7-0111  10-1010  13-1101
2- 0010 5-0101 8-1000 11-1011 14-1110
3- 0011 6-0110 9-1001 12-1100 15-1111

NULLS WITH EXTRA-ORDINARY KEYS

The Cryptogram MJ 2014

LIONEL

Null Cipher enthusiasts are often depicted as no more than puzzle zealots. However the Null remains my very favorite cipher type for its excellent concealment ability (the only unsolvable cipher is the one which no one knows exists) and its resistance to a computer program, challenging us to use all of our mental facilities.

We are aware of many of the common Null keying devices. Numerical sequences, letters preceding or following vowels, consonants, syllables, punctuation marks or parts of speech and digraph/trigraph counting, but the following Nulls reflect some unusual creative genius displayed by our Cm Null cipher constructors that went a bit beyond the keys we are used to looking for.

The indicated past Cm published Nulls are for information only and not for credit. The final three constructions at the end of the article are for credit.

MJ 13 E-10. Homily. (to-2) ANCHISES

AMBIENT SOURCE FOGS ABSURD FILMSET BOOSTS CORRUPT  EMOTIVE SURPLUS OBSCURE SQUADS AFTER BRONCOS CROWDUP CURIOUS ANIMALS PSEUDO DOUBTS FATHOM BUCK SUBORNS FANTOM CROWDS.

Letter shapes prompt this key. Look for the one letter in each ciphertext word that differs from the rest in curves or straight line construction. Solution – Be fast to learn wise to know.

MA 13 Ornamental LIONEL

BORROWED CONCEPTS FURTHERD DOEST DEBUNK FRAGILE IMPRUDENTLY DESIGNED ENIGMA DOMAINS DISTINCTIVELY CREATING FABRICATED GYRATIONS HAMPERING FRUITFUL INFORMATIVE EXPANDED BEACON COMPARISONS BEST EXPUNGED FUEDATORY DECISION CAST AS HESITANCY EASILY BOLSTERS EXPOSED DECEPTIVE CADAVEROUS COMBATIVELY DEVIATE CYNICAL EMBODIMENTS.

Plaintext letters based on initial letter of each ciphertext word – A = first pt letter, B = second pt letter, etc.

Solution – One’s ultimate confinement is a closed mind.

SO 12 E-10. Froude quote. (the) MARSHEN

EFFORT GLEEFUL ALKALI PURVEY ACERBIC HOSPICE LENGTH THURSDAY CLOSETED CHIRPS YEOMAN HUNDRED SECEDED INJURE MIGHTIER JOKER CONFORM UNCOUTH HARBOR FUGUE PROBLEM FIDDLE CURTSY PLAYBOY.

Letter between consecutive letters of each ciphertext word – Solution – Fear is the parent of cruelty.

MJ 12 E-11. An apple is … (HCCHV) DABASAP

PHIL SAID BIKE EAST LINDA SETUP
0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110
MURAL TEAM APOLLO ITCHY. SUBARU WASHED.”
0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100

For each word, align its binary number (first word gets 0001, second gets 0010, etc.) with the right hand edge of the word, and the significant letters are above the “1” digits.

In binary, numbers from 1-15 are represented by:

1- 0001 4-0100 7-0111 10-1010 13-1101 2- 0010 5-0101 8-1000 11-1011 14-1110
3- 0011 6-0110 9-1001 12-1100 15-1111

Solution – Like a natural tooth brush.

JF 10 E-6. Librarians agree (book) JABBERWOCK

DEEP JOLLY, BARNS STEEL JEEP BUBBLED LLAMA GOOSE PEPPER JAZZ CABOOSE SNOW WHITE COMMA SKIING DOUBT THE ABYSS FILLING TOOTH DISC CLOUD SMOOTH BOTTLE VEER BIGGER IMPECCABLE.

Letter preceding all double or consecutive letters – Solution – Don’t judge a book by its movie

SO 96 E7. Vocabulary Drill. (PDQB) APEX DX

IMPETUOUS MARINATE PARISHIONER ZYMURGY TORTUOUS GALIOT DROUGHT
SYNECDOCHE VACUOLE VERTIGINOUS PANEGYRIC NARCOSIS WROUGHT
UXORIOUS LOGARITHMS PTERODACTYL MAYHEM PUSILLANIMOUS MINISTERIAL EQUINOX INTERPLANETARY XENOPHOBIA SPHINX EUPHONIOUS OXYACETYLENE.

The first letter of the last syllable of each ciphertext word yields the plaintext – Solution – One good con is worth many a sol.

MA 90 E6. Confucius insight. (OCPA) APEX DX

PYLON OVERSIZE AGO HALO TORPID DRACO SEQUIN NEMESIS STEW TRAITOR DEPTH DOGMA SPAN PLOYS PARASOL ANALYSIS

Last pair of letters from odd length ciphertext words, last letter from even length words.

Solution – One good con is worth many sols.

ND 81 E10. Drive carefully. (….road) BRUBACHER

Lack tremendous motion? Ask Miss Grace Henderson. Managing leads abuse whenever stomach hurts. Henderson's doctors chase out small or tremendous ploy! But ache tonight.

(Alternate second letter from end and second letter from start)

Solution – Crossroad better humor: Ouch!

The devious constructors out there in ACA land will continue to use their imaginative and devious wiles to attempt to baffle the innocent solver. (See the JA 12 Cm for SCORPIUS’ Null Sequence Cipher).

The Null cipher is not a structured cipher type that lends itself to computer solving or programming, thus protecting and increasing its security value. Its unstructured status allows it to be a most valuable tool in leveling the playing field between the pencil and paper solver and those versed in computer programming.

The seemingly infinite amount of variables, limited only by the constructor’s imaginative powers to think outside the box, is an excellent stimulant to the solving thought juices and processes, an invaluable asset provided by our cryptology hobby.

It is time to recognize the Null Cipher for its value as a concealment and thinking person’s cipher.

Appendix VI – Affine & Hill Ciphers

The Cryptogram, ND 2007

LIONEL

How Urban Elementary School Youth Struggling With Multiplication Tables Find Comfort In The Affine and Hill Cipher Types.

Principal Miss Rosemary cautioned, “Let me be honest up front. These children are not only academically challenged but have a myriad of interests and places they would rather be than in an after school tutoring program.” These were sobering words to one volunteering to lend a helping hand to inner city second, third and fourth graders, who wanted no part of taking on addition, subtraction, division and multiplication tables

What can a teacher to do to enter the mindset of a seven, eight, nine or ten year old, whose attention is attracted to video and computer games, arcades, text messaging and all of the modern technical ingenuity coming down the pike? How do we motivate a mind-tired child after a full day of classrooms in a place that he or she does not want to be? How do we convince a child that learning can be more exciting than frolicking with siblings and friends in fun and games distant from the classroom?

Enter, Terrell, a second grader, steeped in an exuberant personality exhibited in all directions but classroom learning. When his second grade teacher, Miss Mullen, related that all Terrell wanted to do was to have fun, it sent me way back, too many years to count, with thoughts of my third grade teacher, Mrs. Lane, who expressively exhibited the persona of an educator having fun. “Learning should be an exciting fun-filled experience,” voiced a bubbling Mrs. Lane, “How can one not get excited in pursuit of all the knowledge that the universe has to offer?” Now, I had only to fathom how to get this message across to Terrell.

We began with reading, writing, spelling, and basic addition and subtraction, all a turn-off for Terrell, who just wanted to have fun and witnessed no interest in “universal knowledge impact” upon his persona. Conversations about his areas of interests led to super heroes’ adventures. I inquired as to whether he was aware of how super heroes were able to communicate with allies in discreet and private messaging. Enter the world of secret messaging and the Cipher Wheel.

“Wouldn’t it be cool to be able to communicate to your friends in a way that your big brother and sister could not understand what you were saying?” I asked Terrell. “What do you mean, Mr. Lee?” was Terrell’s reply. I scribbled the cipher, “OYDKKH EO BQJ.”

(Caesar Shift of four letters will reveal the plaintext message, “School is fun.”) I suggested that Terrell bring this message home to his brother and sister and challenge them to read it. “But I can’t read it myself, Mr. Lee,” was Terrell’s retort. A short introduction to the Cipher Wheel and Terrell could not wait to get home that afternoon with his new found learning tool. I cautioned him to keep the Cipher Wheel out of sight.

At our next session, Terrell was eager to relate the stumping of his siblings and eager for more practice with the Cipher Wheel. Our one hour session zipped by as I entwined the Cipher Wheel with reading, writing, arithmetic and another secret message for Terrell to take home to his siblings.

Future tutoring sessions introduced Terrell to the Caesar Cipher and Cipher Slides as a prelude and introduction to the most rudimentary Affine and Hill Cipher application to secret messaging. My game plan was to tie in addition, subtraction, division and multiplication practice to ciphers and secret messaging. Oh yes, we would face the dreaded multiplication tables that Terrell’s friends in the upper classes had promised him were coming down the pike. Oh, how challenged students do dread the intrusion of the multiplication tables into their uncomplicated world. I promised Terrell that they would be fun and prepped him to look forward to them as an important part of his secret messaging.

And look forward to them Terrell did. His second grade teacher, Miss Mullen, inquired into what mysterious feeding process in our tutoring sessions was prompting Terrell to lobby for the introduction of the multiplication tables in the second grade curriculum. I cautioned Terrell that he might not be the most popular young man in his classroom when the multiplication tables arrived but he responded, “Don’t worry Mr. Lee, I’ll show them how to use them for secret messages.”

Wow! A volunteer tutoring program that I had approached with apprehension had now taken a positive turn for the better. Requests began pouring in from students for my services and fellow tutors began asking if learning was accompanying the “game playing” that was being reported as taken place in our sessions. I had to discontinue substituting for absent tutors as their students wished to stay with me.

But the best was yet to come, with the appearance of the “dreaded multiplication tables,” as we introduced the Affine and Hill ciphering construction approach to our second, third and fourth grade students.

The Affine (Linear Substitution Encryption) and Hill (Lester Hill, U.S. mathematician)

Cipher techniques manipulate numbers in ciphertext with complicated formulae base to disguise message plaintext over and above the simple substitution process. Numbers have been commonly used to encipher plaintext but the Affine and Hill Ciphers use mathematical formulae and logic to disguise the plaintext further through a series of mathematical equations.

The Affine Linear Substitution Encryption in its most basic application form may first apply addition and then multiplication to its plaintext message. To convert the plaintext letter “C” by this method, 5 might be added to the numerical value of the letter (C = 3; 3 + 5 = 8) and that sum multiplied by some other constant, such as 5 (5 x 8 = 40). The resulting cipher letter is N (40 modulo 26 = 14 – N). (Encyclopedia of Cryptology, David E. Newton, Instructional Horizons Inc., 1997)

The Hill Cipher suggests that a series of plaintext letters can be converted into ciphertext with the use of four simultaneous linear equations where variables are raised to no power higher than the first and all variables have the same values. Needless to relate, such complex base formulae do not allow for the ease of plaintext encryption and certainly will not relate to the desire of making elementary classroom mathematics fun and games. But they do provide a path to a simplistic approach of making secret messaging through elementary mathematics fun while achieving the primary objective of simultaneously educating the student.

Supported by the Affine and Hill Cipher premises and willed with the desire to make mathematics fun, we began our journey. A simple alphabetical/numerical slide is constructed, relating letters of the alphabet to a numerical sequence:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Let the fun and games begin. Numerical ciphertext is developed, incorporating the mathematical lessons of the day. This simple slide is sufficient to relate to the second grade’s most basic math problems and is expanded as higher class math relates to double digit multiplication tables, columnar addition and long division type problems. A second grade numerical ciphertext, related to the numerical slide might look like this:

(6 + 3) (6 + 6) (5 + 4) (6 + 5) (3 + 2) (10 + 9)
I l I k e s
(2 + 1) (4 + 4) (10 + 5) (5 + 10) (7 + 5)
c h o o l

The classroom exercise enjoyment is enhanced as secret messages are related to the students and geometrically compounded as students are challenged to develop their own secret notes to take home and challenge the family. (My first secret message to Terrell related to school being fun. He however related that he could come up with much more interesting plaintext.)

This mathematical recipe for secret messaging to initially challenge siblings, friends and family and in later years to cover up messages from uninvited prying eyes establishes an intensive avenue to motivation.

Ah, yes, the interminable age-old competition between the cryptographer and cryptanalyst reared its ugly head one day when a student lamented that a brother had figured out her ciphering slide system. What is a cryptographer to do? Why it’s elementary, my dear Watson (the student’s actual name, Ravena Watson) simply change the slide. Reverse the alphabetical order, use an inside out alphabetical arrangement, arrange the slide with every other letter order, etc. etc. etc. And so, cryptology and mathematics education had been saved to live another day.

“Affine and Hill” brought the classroom alive for both the student and the teacher by demonstrating that learning can be fun. It has transferred the mathematical educational journey from one of “the blahs” to a passion for numbers. This inspirational transference has made both student and teacher eager to return to the classroom in much the same nature of anticipation that is engendered into the looking forward to the newest video game, ball game or latest movie or DVD. It has invigorated this educator into looking forward to the next academic year.

Appendix VII – Foursquare Cipher

c.t. Letter Frequencies (per 100 Digraphs)

a b c d e 5 6 7 8 4   a b c d e 5 6 8 8 4
f g h i k 3 2 5 4 3 f g h i k 3 2 4 5 3
l m n o p 4 4 4 8 6 l m n o p 5 4 4 7 5
q r s t u 3 3 5 8 6 q r s t u 3 3 5 9 6
v w x y z 1 0 0 1 1 v w x y z 1 0 1 2 2
5 6 6 7 5 a b c d e 4 6 7 6 5 a b c d e
3 3 5 4 2 f g h i k 1 1 4 5 2 f g h i k
5 3 3 9 5 l m n o p 4 3 3 9 5 l m n o p
4 3 5 6 8 q r s t u 4 2 6 7 6 q r s t u
1 0 0 1 1 v w x y z 1 1 0 3 1 v w x y z
 
Based upon 825,000 digraphs from English language word lists Based upon 5,000 digraphs: “Statistical Methods in Cryptanalysis” by Killback

JF78 AC-155 FOURSQUARE “U-Boating”

Sq 2: K S G M N X F R Y B V W L U E O P C T D Z H Q I A  
  16 14 13 12 10 10 10 9 9 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 170
 
Sq 4: C P Q F V L Y O X D S G N U W A I K R T W H M B Z  
  15 14 13 12 11 11 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 170

 

a b c d e D S R K U
f g h i k E O B L V
l m n o p P F C M X
q r s t u T W G N Y
v w x y z H A I Q Z
C D F N U a b c d e
R I G O W f g h i k
A V K P X l m n o p
S E L Q Y q r s t u
H B M T Z v w x y z

Appendix VIII – Algorithms

The Cryptogram ND 13

LIONEL

An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem. The word derives from the name of the mathematician, Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, who was part of the royal court in Baghdad and who lived from about 780 to Al-Khwarizmi’s work is the likely source for the word algebra as well.

Although our familiarity with the word “algorithm” may be one of a mathematical sense as an aid to solving ciphers, its use is far from simply mathematical. We use this procedure as a set of unambiguous steps in many of our everyday activities. It may be used for something as common as following a recipe for baking a blueberry pie:

An algorithm is characterized by the fact that certain distinct steps must be taken (find the largest number that can be divided into the first two numbers of the dividend) and that those steps may need to be repeated before a distinct answer is obtained. In modern cryptology, encipherment and decipherment are both mathematical operations that follow specific algorithms, differing from one ciphering system to another. An awareness of the algorithm system allows us to work at solving the cipher at hand. The algorithm stated above for long division is a simple one, easily followed. Algorithms used in cryptology can be simple or more complex.

The complexity of an algorithm is defined by the number of arithmetical operations it performs and represented by the length of the input, i.e., the number of bits required to store. Fermat’s Theorem or Einstein’s Theory of Relativity are examples of complex algorithm procedures requiring a vast accumulation of mathematical computations.

Cryptographic Algorithm Applications

We practice algorithm procedures every time we make use of letter frequency and digraph / trigraph counts, study a Columnar Cipher or Route Transportation path, utilize keyword alphabets, follow ACA and You encryption procedures, use the 26 x 26 Vigenère Square or even execute the solution of a Caesar Cipher. The Caesar Cipher encryption can be depicted by (N + X) letter shift in the alphabet where N is a fixed integer and X equals a numbered letter shift.

Deep-dish Blueberry Pie LIONEL

Serves 8 to 10 people
Six cups of fresh blueberries
1/2 cup flour
2/3 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
One teaspoon lemon juice
Mix ingredients together and place in a deep, 8 by 11 inch rectangular pan which has previously been sprayed with Pam. Cover with rolled out pastry for a one crust pie.
Bake it in oven at 425 degrees for 40 to 45 minutes, or until the crust is brown.
Enjoy.

A far better algorithm encryption technique is to use a keyword alphabet table to define the letter substitutions to be made for each letter of the plaintext. We will use a twenty-six letter pangram to do this:

Plaintext a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
CIPHERTXT N E W J O B F I X M R G L U C K S H A Z Y T V P D Q

One Time Pad

There is a simple classical cipher which makes use of mathematical algorithms and has proven to be secure, the One Time Pad (OTP). This is a is an encryption algorithm where the plaintext is combined with a random key or “pad” that is as long as the plaintext and used only once. Each bit or character from the plaintext is encrypted by a modular addition with a bit or character from a secret random pad of the same length as the plaintext, resulting in a ciphertext. For these examples, A=0, B=1, C=2, . . . , Z = 25. To encipher a message, you may take the value of the first letter in the plaintext message and add it to the value of the first random letter from the one-time pad. For example, suppose you are enciphering the letter S(18) and the one-time pad gives you C(2). You add the two letters. When you add S and C, you get 20 which is U. Each letter is enciphered in this method, with the alphabet wrapping around to the beginning if the addition results in a number beyond 25 (Z).

Encryption = pt (n) + OTP (n) = CT. To decipher this message, you would take the first letter of the ciphertext and subtract the first random letter from the one-time pad. If the number is negative you wrap around to the end of the alphabet.

Example

Encryption rule = pt (n) + OTP (n) = CT e (4) + U (20) = Y (24)
Decryption rule = CT (n) – OTP (n) = pt U (20) – C (2) = s (18)
pt/ plaintext : secretmessage
OTP/onetime pad: CIJTHUUHMLFRU (random key)
CT/ CIPHERTEXT: UMLKLNGLEDFXY

MJ 2013 Cm E-9 Baconian Cipher Algorithm

An algorithm for the Baconian Cipher which appeared in our MJ2013 issue might read something like this:

DC (may) to NC POS 115 + LFBAP (aaaabbbb) + ATCT = SOL

Meaning: Drag Crib (may) to Non Conflict Position 115, Look for Biliteral Alphabet Pattern (aaaabbbb), Apply to Ciphertext = Solution

Algorithms need not be simply mathematic equations. They are a part of our everyday life.

We use them when we take the shortest route to the grocery store, cut the grass, water the flowers, instruct our young ones in the “do’s” and “don’ts” and choose our words carefully in debates with our significant other. Algorithms need not be complicated algebraic equations used to attempt to insure coverage of plaintext such as in Affine and Hill cipher types, but simply a way to plot a logical procedure to arrive at the cipher solution of the day or the baking of that delicious deep-dish Blueberry Pie.

Appendix IX – The use of Google as a Solving Tool

LIONEL

Google Inc., an American multinational corporation specializes in Internet-related services including an excellent online search mechanism and educational technique. It can be an invaluable aid to our solving process as illustrated by some examples below.

Devious constructor, TSIOLKOVSKY, authored a most challenging cipher with his E-18 Quagmire III, titled, International Relations, in the SO 2013 Cm. Numerous trial and error works with Period lengths and crib placements generated no success while toiling through the solving process.

With the thought that the crib “and run came at the end of the second refrain” might produce a clue with a Google Search on the Internet, a few clicks on the keyboard revealed the following repartee:

“Mad Dogs and Englishmen” is a song written by Noel Coward and first performed in The Third Little Show at the Music Box Theater on June 1, 1931.”

“The song is especially known for the line “Mad dogs and Englishmen go out in the midday sun” with which most verses begin and end.”

“At a dinner party given by Winston Churchill in honor of President Franklin D. Roosevelt it achieved international significance. It appears that the two world leaders became involved in a heated debate as to whether ‘In Bangkok at twelve o’clock they foam at the mouth and run’ came at the end of the first refrain or at the end of the second refrain. President Roosevelt held firmly to the latter view and refused to budge even under the impact of Churchillian rhetoric. In this he was right. Mr. Churchill later admitted defeat like a man.”

Dragging President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill’s name through the Quagmire III construction ciphertext produced an inordinate amount of plaintext and a solution was in sight.

The E-10 Route Transposition cipher in the JA 2013 Cm by RIG RMORTIS was titled “Terpsichorean tongue.” Google not only indicated the use of the title in the Dance World but provided dance masters by name, leading to much plaintext in this route path.

The JA 2013 A-16 by WORD WIZARD is titled, “Has sixteen vertices, “is identified by Google as a Tesseract, the very second word of the cipher’s plaintext.

In JF 2013, WORD WIZARD offered a baffling Cipher Exchange Railfence cipher construction titled, Stellar Sequence. It contained five rails in ordinary numerical sequence but its opening plaintext made little sense. A quick search of “Stellar Sequence” on Google provided the code letters of OBAFGKMRN, a mnemonic reference to the spectral class of a star based upon its ionization state.

It also provided the first nine words of the Railfence construction, “Oh be a fine girl kiss me right now…..”

HONEYBEE’s JA2013, E-23 Quagmire IV, State Park, (seventy-seven hundred men) required just a bit more insightfulness and the knowledge that this cipher cryptographer had been penning many State Park constructions located in Virginia.. A Google visit soon produced the Virginia State Park site (Sailors Creek) where seventy-seven hundred soldiers were lost or wounded and the cipher solver was rewarded with much plaintext.

The list goes on and the lessons here are many.

  1. All solving aids are fair in war and solving when dueling with the devious constructor.
  2. There are no off limit support aids in the research of the cryptanalysis process.
  3. Pay attention to cipher titles and cribs as aids in researching cipher plaintext.